2015 is just around the corner and you might be wondering what part of your digital marketing strategies will still work next year and what new strategies you might get embarked on and get prepared for. Not to mention your budget, what share you should allocate to each one of the media channels which drives you qualified traffic and ROI.
With the ever increasing number of internet users and new generation products and services, you must assure you can offer the best experience for your users. There are probably too many potential clients you are missing due to either lack of strategically developed online marketing strategy or the lack of a well defined roadmap you should follow.
Online marketing is very hard, you must face an increased number of competitors, more and more channels you must cover to reach your audience and your resources are limited. What I’m trying to cover in my post is to assist you in making smart decisions either when it comes to your ad spends, tools to consider to accelerate your tasks as well as outsourcing opportunities you were not aware of.
To better illustrate what you might expect in 2015 and onwards, I’ve digged myself quite deep into several resources which took quite a while to write this post. On first hand, I wanted to make sure, I have quite a bunch of knowledge regarding the future of digital marketing, based on opinions and views of other highly renowned digital marketers. I hope my efforts will pay off for you as a reader and find it really helpful in jumpstarting your digital marketing efforts for year 2015.
Why you need a well defined digital marketing strategy?
Well, there are quite a bunch of reasons why you need to follow some sort of digital marketing roadmap among which here are few of the most prominent ones:
- you need growth both in terms of traffic, users or customers and most important ROI
- you need to learn more about your market (customers and competitors alike)
- you need to know your customers characteristics to personalize your offer
- you need your brand to shine and get viral, make your voice heard and listen to feedbacks from your audience
- you must think digital and build your team on this basis (sometimes it comes with painful consequences) – you either adapt or go extinct
- you must take control of your marketing expenditure, spend smart, don’t waste your budget, give back to good causes (donate to local charity)
- you’ll need to differentiate yourself from your competition and stand out from the crowd
- you must keep up-to-date with latest trends and innovations within your industry, always excel to be one of the first in making the next move
- you must assure that you’re avoiding missing opportunities
- you need to work along clearly defined goals and business objectives
- you need to track performance along well defined KPI metrics which will assist in what and how should be optimized to achieve better performance
It’s time to break down the walls within your organization and let digital become your default and build a culture around this concept.
Now, I’ll try to outline some of the most challenging issues you’d face while developing your next or first digital marketing strategy for your business, be it a personal blog, e-commerce or any other form of corporate or non-corporate site.
Watch the trends, keep you informed & ensure you’re always one step ahead of your competition
We have to admit that by simply doing the same thing over and over will not lead to a sustainable development. Unfortunately this relates not only on per year basis, even during the year, you’ll be facing new challenges you must adapt to in order to survive and prosper.
There’s a saying, if you want to remain in business tomorrow, you must adapt to the evolving landscape of digital and catch up with upward trending areas, mostly influenced by Generation Y. Millennials are the biggest spenders today and expect them to spend even more in the following years.
Resources to consider:
- Trendwatching – global consumer trends, insights into latest tech innovations @TrendWatching
- MarketWatch – markets, investing, finance, economy and many more accompanied with inbox alerts and watchlist @MarketWatch
- Google Alerts – this should be a standard by year 2015 that each organisation should get alerted either about it’s own brand mentions or their competition, TalkWalker Alerts would be another alternative you might consider
- Twitter Hashtags – #DigitalMarketing, #Mashies via @mashable
- BetaList or ProductHunt – watch for latest startup innovations within your niche
- Surveys – participating in surveys, usually you’ll get free access to the reports, such sources are Econsultancy or SmartInsights
Influencing & persuasion – Wisdom of the crowd
Does your brand already have a top influencer in driving your business forward? If not, you must take some serious steps in finding at least one strong influencer with a large network within your niche, someone whose words have some weight when it comes to promoting your products or services.
Building your brand advocates is only a small part of the game, the real value lays in capturing your audience attention in a way which will lead to virally spread your words throughout a large network. This always reminds me of the following quote by Scott Cook – Founder & Chairman @Intuit:
A brand is no longer what we tell consumers it is – it is what consumers tell each other it is.
Just like in 2014, influencer relationship marketing (IRM) will continue to play a crucial role years to come and it should be integrated in the whole digital marketing strategy as a decisive factor in engaging your consumers through social media channels and WOMM.
If you got convinced of the advantages influencer marketing could offer you, you might also be considering the Influence Marketing book to better manage the influence paths leading your consumers to buy your products or services.
When it comes to budgeting in digital marketing, there are nine main areas which you should be considering to invest more in 2015:
- content strategy (blog & email marketing)
- social media advertising
- website redesign (make it mobile/user friendly)
- SEO & PPC
- display advertising
- mobile marketing & advertising
- trade shows & events
- digital marketing tools (tracking, marketing automation, social media management platforms)
- analytics & big data
I don’t claim I have the silver bullet or recipe in regards of optimal budget distribution for the upcoming year, however, what I’m gonna offering you, would be a guideline or let’s call it, a blueprint I encourage you to pursue.
One of the challenges you must face in 2015 would be that of sacrificing some of your budget to keep up with new technologies unless you don’t want to lag behind. The latest Gartner survey reveals that 50% of the companies are planning to increase their digital marketing budget for the year 2015.
Expect mobile ad spend to reach 14% share of the whole media ad spend and 27% share in digital ad spending.
The annual B2B Demand Generation Benchmark report for year 2015 by marketing software resource Software Advice, reveals that trade shows, referrals and in-house email marketing campaigns are about to drive the largest share of high quality leads among all marketing channels. Video content is in high demand and will continue to play an important role in generating high quality leads.
SEO has lost from its popularity according to Google Trends, still it proves to be one of the most valuable acquisition channels as well as with highest customer lifetime value compared to the other media channels.
SEO is not what it used to be in its early ages, most of the changes have been caused by advanced and sophisticated algorithm changes Google has made (Caffeine, Hummingbird, Penguin, Panda, Knowledge Graph, Payday Loan, Pigeon) to better serve its users (searchers).
Keywords and rankings are still important but you should consider them from a completely different angle. Keywords as we know, are part of the on-page optimization process however you should take in account how search engines interpret them thanks to semantic search, context and entities vs pure words. In a nutshell, there must be a strong connection between the queried term and its search intent with the actual content on your web pages.
Due to non-ethical SEO approaches, mostly thanks to unnatural link buildings, many websites got penalised by Google with devastating consequences for the business. The only option for recovery, remains a thorough link clean-up by using one of the many tools available on the market (Link Detox, Panguin tool or Fruition Penalty Checker) combined with more strict guidelines as well as professionals taking over the wheel of SEO related tasks.
Since Google’s Pigeon update, you might need to rebuild your local SEO strategies, especially if you’re in the brick and mortar business. Here is a Pigeon proofing checklist and advice from top local SEO professionals I highly advise to go through.
In order to avoid any drawbacks and ensure your SEO efforts will continue to pay off, there would be three main rules you should follow, that of creating high quality content valued by your users, then build up relationships with highly authoritative web pages (preferably within same niche) and gather positive feedbacks on either or both review and social media sites (likes, shares, tweets).
Last but not least, make sure all your SEO efforts are an integral part of the whole digital marketing strategy rather than being a separate department within your organisation. It’s time to sweep out quick-winners and seek for SEOs with a marketer and entrepreneurial mindset who are steadily building your brand with long-term business goals.
Content, content, content
And by content I don’t mean a 500 words article, it’s much more than that, if you really want to make a difference within your niche. Creating content is probably the biggest burden for both marketers and corporate organisations (even for me 🙂 ). I’ve personally seen many cases when creation of content was based on purely three criteria that of making it regular, have at least 500 words and make it relevant to the product or service the company tries to market. The problem with such approach results in having a bunch of new content but still no result in terms of traffic, customer or revenue growth. With your content you really need to make sure you are delivering value to your prospects and in order to achieve this goal, first you must listen to your audience and the outside world.
On pages with longer posts (>2,000 words), users tend to spend more time on your site especially if the content is targeted towards the user’s interests or search intent. Make it intriguing with images, illustrations and videos (otherwise your users might get bored). Break up your posts in logical and easy to follow sections, use headers, subheaders and bullet pointed lists. This way your readers will find your content enjoyable to consume and would happily share with their social peers who would eventually become your brand advocates.
Avoid by all means low quality cookie cutter type of content otherwise you’ll face more stringent penalties from Google (Panda, Pay Day). Here are some of the main content marketing types or channels you should definitely take seriously in 2015 and onwards:
- Blogging – the new SEO and part of the inbound marketing strategy
- Email marketing – third best performing acquisition channel after SEO and PPC
- Video content – (create your own branded YouTube channel(s), tutorials, educational as well as business and explainer videos)
Content Marketing Survey conducted by Content Marketing Institute
Blogs are becoming crucial for any business or organisation. This is the medium through which organisations can communicate and maintain relationship with their audience and/or customers. Delivering fresh new and interesting content to your users, results in getting your brand spread through likes, shares or tweets which builds up an even larger audience on the long run. Research data show that in case of B2B organizations who adopted regular blog postings, had achieved 67% more leads against those companies without a blog.
Few key findings in favor of starting a blog on your personal or corporate site:
- witness 13x more positive ROI – HubSpot State of Inbound
- 16-20 monthly blogging leads to twice as much traffic than four or less time monthly blogging
- regular blogging can lead to a 67% increase in leads generation for B2B marketers – TrafficGenerationCafe
- SME businesses with blogs, generate 126% more leads – The BlogConomy
- 61% of US consumers made their purchase decision based on blog posts – BlogHer
Email marketing has been widely adopted by many entrepreneurs and plays a crucial role in the whole marketing mix with its capability of enriching business communication. Emails are the closest you can get with your users or customers and thanks to advanced innovations in marketing technology, there are highly targetable solutions to manage your email campaigns in correlation with your audience needs or expectations. I presume, most of you are already using an email or newsletter campaign management platform, if not, you’d better take your first step for the change. Here are few of the most popular email marketing softwares you might consider: MailChimp, GetResponse, AWeber, MailiGen, MailerLite. With emails, you can not only reach your target market but it ensures you to stay connected with your customer base.
Some of the benefits email marketing can offer for your business:
- easy to create (thanks to advanced email marketing technologies)
- test your marketing messages (A/B tests)
- track user behaviour and engagement
- send extremely targeted messages as part of your marketing campaign (by segmenting your users based on different criterias)
- cost effective (at least compared to mainstream marketing channels)
- global reach (there are basically no obstacles to reach a global audience)
- fair use of opt-in and opt-out options (it’s the user’s choice if he wants to opt-in or opt-out from a mailing list)
Stats in favor of email marketing
- there are more than 4 billion email accounts worldwide
- 9 out of 10 online consumers use email and checking it at least once a day
- email marketing campaigns resulted in a staggering 4,300% ROI
By the adoption of video content, you can showcase your services or products in a more efficient way you otherwise wouldn’t be able to by use of text or images. Video marketing became an integral part of the digital marketing strategy and significantly contributes to better performing campaigns whenever it’s being applied.
You should definitely consider harnessing the power of video content not only in year 2015 but the following years as well.
Advantages video content can offer for your business:
- users can better understand your message (explainer videos)
- users have a huge appetite for video consumption
- professionally created video ads are more likely to get memorised and virally spread by your users as against to image based display ads
- video content leads to an increase in click through rates (email campaigns)
- video content consumers have a higher tendency to get engaged
- a video content has an effect on four main decisive areas: movement, voice, facials and emotions – (Quicksprout)
Tools you can amplify your video marketing efforts
- Live stream video content: Ustream, LiveStream, Google Hangouts
- Educational platforms: UseFedora, Patience.io, Udemy, Linda
- Video advertising platforms: ViralGains Video statistics and trends for 2015 – Download whitepapaer
- Video production: Wideo.co (animated videos), Videolean, Demo Duck, IdeaVideos
- Video creation and distribution: YouTube, Vimeo, Wistia
- Video content outsourcing: Fiverr, Sparkol & VideoScribe
- Storytelling through interactive video: Interlude
Expect to pay more for your content in 2015
In other terms, we are witnessing an overload of content which will continue to increase exponentially in the following years, leading to unsustainable strategies. There is no one better describing this phenomenon than Mark Schaefer in his shocking blog post titled Why content marketing is not a sustainable strategy as well as how you could overcome the content shock in his other post 10 Strategies to Battle Content Shock.
There is probably no clearer evidence that content marketing has reached its peak in 2014 than the Google trends data show us. It’s similar with SEO which reached its maximum in 2010 and remained constant ever since.
What you’ll need to focus on in 2015 would be the quality of your content which should overperform noisy and weaker content in today’s more and more crowded ecosystem. Expect to spend more time and resources to come up with really useful and engaging content not to mention the increasing distribution costs you’ll have to face.
Content marketing tools of the future
- Kapost – Turbocharge your content marketing
- Compendium – Manage, publish and deliver engaging content in context – by Oracle
- ScribeContent – Content optimization software
- SnapApp – Engaging and interactive content which delivers result
- Content BLVD – Reaching your audience with brand integrations
- Zerys – Content marketing software platform
- GatherContent – An easy way to organize and write real content
Integrated marketing – The emphasis on multi & cross channel marketing
At my early ages of becoming an SEO professional, at that time being a link builder, I remember exactly that there had been a clear repulsion towards any paid or other marketing initiatives like PPC or social media. For us SEOs, someone working as PPC professional meant one thing, he is either lazy or not creative enough to cope with the much more complex tasks SEO required.
Today though, it’s a completely different story. Not unexpectedly, I’ve put an end in continuing my SEO profession and rather switched into becoming a digital marketer with a much broader view on the whole digital marketing ecosystem.
And once again, the emphasis I aim to call your attention to is the common objectives across all marketing channels, hence each marketing department must adapt. In order to achieve these goals you need to reorganize, use highly efficient collaboration tools and platforms and last but not least make the whole process scalable.
Today’s customer journey become much more complex but thanks to latest innovations in measuring data and attribution modelling, now there is the possibility to track every move your customers make prior conversion. The era of H2H (Human to Human) business concept has started. Tools like Tableau, Kissmetrics, Custora, KeenIO, RJMetrics and BareMetrics are just a few of the tools with which you can track your audience with pinpoint accuracy.
By multi-channel marketing we understand the combination of a multitude of direct and indirect communication channels where our audience can seamlessly locate and interact with us. You as a marketer must assure your digital marketing strategy covers all those channels and establishes intelligent interactions with your hyperconnected customers.
Social Media – The must pay to play environment
On the other hand, some of us might need to reach deep into our pockets if we really want to make a difference on existing social media platforms. For those so called free riders there’s not so much they can expect in 2015. The social environment we knew and got accustomed to became too crowded and no one can expect to reach a wider audience on a free ride. Get prepared to reach deep into your pocket if you really want to remain afloat.
Since there are too many social platforms one can manage successfully, each business type or vertical must carefully analyse which one would suit best for their needs. By needs I mostly mean the right audience they can reach and get engaged with by constantly building up a community around their brands. Geographical locations still matter when it comes to social platform popularity on a particular market (China, Japan and South Korea vs US).
It looks like neither of the all major social platforms can or show any signs of reaching or targeting at the scale of Facebook’s capacity which rivals television.
For local SEO it might still play some crucial role, however, on the other hand, it will go extinct.
I can’t remember myself ever considering G+ a serious player in the social media ecosystem and I bet neither any of you. There was a real buzz around G+ and +1 when launched in 2011 but with current redraw of its authorship functionality and cease of their usual forced approach of creating your G+ profile, we can’t expect too much on this side in 2015. On the other hand, in my opinion, Hangout will remain as a stand-alone application and G+ will have the same fate as Wave had in 2010.
And probably the strongest sign G+ will officially close in 2015 is Vic Gundotra’s leave as the father of G+ for eight years at Google.
We might also witness some major social media consolidations if not in 2015 but most certainly in the following 2-3 years. Twitter + Facebook, Pinterest + Instagram, we can’t know at this stage but be prepared that some time in 2015 or following years, these mergers will occur.
Social ad platforms you might consider
- Facebook paid promotion campaigns – brand exposure, display advertising and remarketing
- Twitter promoted products – run objective based campaigns or promoted tweets, accounts and trends
- Promoted Pins on Pinterest – promote your pins on relevant search results for your targeted audience on a CPC based payment model – looks like there is waitlist one must register to take part of this game
- Instagram ads – after six months of testing, the Facebook owned photo and video sharing app has finally launched it’s first video ads with Disney, Activision and Banana Republic as first early buyers
- SnapChat – the mobile messaging app just started experimenting it’s native advertising with a 20 sec movie trailer
Snapchat’s first ad is a 20 second movie trailer for “Ouija” pic.twitter.com/zlgP2ysBYE
— Tim Peterson (@petersontee) October 18, 2014
If someone doesn’t take this issue seriously, not only the website is doomed but it will hit hard on the whole business. You might consider that your website is already mobile friendly but you can’t know till you test. Here are the results for my site and Forbes which successfully passed the test, however I haven’t yet switched to a mobile friendly navigation.
On the other hand, here is an example which did not pass the mobile friendly test.
I think that it’s not a coincidence that Google has recently launched its Mobile friendly label in mobile SERPs along with a testing tool allowing any site owner to test if their sites pass or fail the mobile test. Google is also experimenting with a new ranking algorithm which sooner or later will be deployed to mobile search results.
When we mean mobile, it’s not just about phones or tablets, moreover, you must keep your eyes on new wearable technologies combined with smart integrations with our daily lives and habits. All this, leads to a hyper-highly personalised data-driven targeting on the basis of What, When & Where you need concept.
According to an eMarketer’s study, the number of mobile phone users will reach 4.77 billion by year 2015 and 5.13 billion by 2017 globally. Although the increase of new users is slowing down, the slight increase we still witness, results from developing regions like Africa and Asia-Pacific.
Mobile and smartphone users prediction 2012-2017 – source: eMarketer
Number of smartphone users also show a significant increase worldwide, expecting to overpass 2 billion users in 2015 and to reach 2.5 billion by year 2017. The anticipated number of smartphone users in US will reach 180 million in 2015 and 220 million by year 2018 according to Statista.
According to Ericsson’s latest Mobility report, we should expect an 8X increase in smartphone traffic by year 2020, thanks mostly to the growth of smartphone subscriptions and data consumption.
According to Gartner’s study, by year 2017 there will be close to 270 billion app downloads generating a revenue of almost $80 billion. Personalized data will continue to stream from an average 100 apps per user on a daily basis. At this point we can expect to have apps for practically anything we can imagine, from entertainment like apps to productivity and home automation.
The adoption of mobile apps and wearable smart gadgets will increase and become more significant in 2015 and following years, especially when it comes to user engagement strategies. Apps of the future will have more robust smart auto triggers or actions, meaning they will make decisions on our behalf based on historical data and our preferences. Practically, mobile gadgets of the future will have the ability to prioritize our daily tasks, make predictions and take control of other appliances we have at our home. The biggest players in this matter will be the big corporations who possess a large repository of data like Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon.
How to build your own mobile app?
Nowadays there are countless solutions to have your own mobile app. You either subscribe to an DIY (do it yourself) app builder platform, usually cloud-based ones, extremely useful for small and medium sized businesses, or hire an app developer company like WillowTree or Sourcebits (find more here).
Since I’m here to help you with your digital marketing efforts, I’m willing to share with you some of the most cost saving options to craft your own apps without investing thousands of dollars.
Below you’ll find few DIY app developer platforms you could make your first move towards building up your first mobile app to connect and engage with your actual and future customers:
- Como – good for any business type, from restaurants to music, to events and non profit organizations, it’s a fully customizable DIY platform with countless features and styles as well as promotional and social sharing tools. The app platform is set on the create, customize and connect three-in-one model with the customer’s mindset of their needs and expectations
- MobileRoadie – has a preview functionality to see your newly created app just like it would look like on any mobile device. It also has a pull and push functionality to easily refresh or extract your content. With its extensive collection of features, it’s no wonder they are proud to have customers like TED, NBA, EMI and Verizon just to mention a few. Other features you might consider useful for your business would be the update any time CMS, geo-targeted push notifications, rewards with earn-point functionality as part of a competition campaign as well as user localizer on map functionality
- AppyPie – as they call themselves, making an app is as easy as making a pie, at least that’s what this drag-and-drop app platform aims to offer for their clients. Similarly with the Como app, the AppyPie is also based on a three step process. First you select your category, build your app then publish and promote it. The platform is equipped with a dynamic monetization functionality offering you to monetize your apps with either ads or even rewarding offers. Besides the many useful features this app platform has, I highly encourage you to browse through their market place and search within your niche or category.
There are of course many other at least as robust and useful platforms like the ones I’ve listed above, not to mention similar products but with slightly different functionalities and scope like the TapLytics mobile A/B testing tool.
Push notifications and real time alerts
Push notification or messaging might be the tightest connection you can have with your customers. Applied by most of the mobile applications available on the market, a recent study shows that seven out of ten app users are enabling push notification of the app they are downloading. For you as a marketer, the main advantage you can benefit from, provided that your brand already has its own mobile application, would be that of alerting your customers without the application being active on user’s side.
Also known as real time or instant alerts, sometimes even shoulder tapping, this type of messaging has been widely adopted by consumers in 2014 and you can expect this marketing approach to get even more widely spread in 2015.
Most regularly adopted types of push notifications and who is already adopting:
- upcoming events & meetings (Refresh, Netflix)
- location-based messaging (United)
- order updates
- financial or balance updates (Bank of America, Levelmoney)
- apartment rentals
- messaging (TweetBot, Facebook)
- personalised daily habitual use (Lift)
- driving guidance (Waze)
- job listings
Be aware that despite the advantages this type of real time communication can offer, by abusing your customers or users, you’ll risk losing them for good. Time plays a crucial role but you should also aim to send personalized, contextual and relevant alerts.
— Emily Nicole Doherty (@emilyn_doherty) December 25, 2014
— Ryan Tenney (@ryantenney) December 18, 2014
Programmatic and RTB
The biggest challenge ad tech companies face is fraud and this is what programmatic web is supposed to overcome. The biggest pain though is on brands sides who always end up in paying the bills for non human generated impressions.
Luckily there are already products like Enbrite.ly which are supposed to eliminate fraudulent behaviors, leading to an increased ROI when it comes to your ad spends. Still, programmatic ad spend models with highly relevant messaging are our next generation platforms we should rely on in reaching our audience in real time. Programmatic buying focuses mainly on three major areas: deliver customised messages to the right person, at the right moment and in the right context. Not to mention the relevancy and efficiency of running your direct response or brand campaigns at scale.
If I had to summarise what you should expect in 2015 and onwards as regards of programmatic ad buys, you should definitely expect a fundamental reshape of the whole digital advertising ecosystem. Ad buyers at last will have the opportunity to spend their ad budgets wisely, paying for the right audience , at the right time and at the fairest price possible.
Additional resources to consider:
User data tracking, big data & personalisation
Today’s technologies allow us to track almost every move of our users both online and off-line. By understanding all the interactions our users make, we can easily spot blind or weak spots, then make the necessary steps to optimize for profitability or higher ROI. Companies are expected to increase their budgets for tools capable of tracking user behaviours along their journey.
With the ever increasing adoption of personalization you should expect a grow of one-to-one marketing tactics.
We all live in a globalized world but with the tendency of transforming our surroundings into a digital ecosystem, we should expect a shift towards personalization with higher and higher accuracy. We might experience the born of new digital marketing segments like localized digital marketing, behavioural digital marketing or individualized digital marketing. It’s time to end centralized business environments.
Here are few tools I recommend to jumpstart your personalisation strategy in 2015:
- Custora – measure CLV, behavioral segmentation, cohort analysis, lifecycle marketing
- RJMetrics – an analytics platform for decision makers, business intelligence for e-commerce, SaaS & mobile
- Mixpanel – ask a question and Mixpanel will give you the answer
- Looker – watch the health of your business, create a data driven culture, explore customer behavioral data
- Kissmetrics – gives you the insights you need to properly optimize your marketing efforts
If you want to deep dive into a more robust research on the topic of personalisation, all I could recommend is to have a look on Econsultancy’s latest digital intelligence briefing entitled Personalisation, Trust and Return on Investment.
And now, in few words about big data. We all know and aware of this hyped buzzword but mainly most of us are connecting this with the concept of gathering loads of data rather than the analysis or actionable insights we could benefit from. Big data developments are still in its early ages but we should expect an increase in machine generated data of wearable devices and in all sort of areas like transportation, agriculture or health.
In a world where the one year yardstick has shrinked into one month, that’s how fast newly emerged technologies evolve, our human powers have long reached their maximum capacity. This is why, just like in the industrial world, in digital marketing as well, we must adapt to automated and highly personalised solutions. Being involved in either a B2C or B2B business, the time has come for a major switch towards H2H (human to human) business models when needs and expectations are being approached on per individual basis thanks mostly to latest in marketing technologies and innovations.
I really hope you enjoyed my coverage and would highly appreciate your feedback or any additional thoughts you might have.